DEVAST
Disaster
Evacuation
and Risk
Perception
in Democracies

Presentation

After the evacuation of a 20 km radius zone around the Daiichi Nuclear plant, the towns, fields and road have been abandonned to nature. The entry was limited for a few hours at a time. Due to radiations, the zone has been left with little or no human activity. Despite police patrols, looting and burglaries have occured.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2012

Mr. Yoshida de l'usine de Nambu se tient dans le hangar ou sont entreposes les dechets solides radioactifs apres traitement complet. Ils emettent 0,53 microsieverts par heure.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

40 jours apres le tremblement de terre et le Tsunami, une usine devastee

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Les chiffres officiels sont formellement rassurants. Les verifications quotidiennes qui sont effectuees a Shinjuku affirment un taux de radioactivite de 0,06 microsievert par heure, soit moins que la radioactivite naturelle ambiante 0,07 microsievert. La mesure est effectuee a une hauteur de 18 metres, alors qu'il devrait etre effectue a un metre !

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

House near Ishinomaki port

Photo: Michiko Kameda

40 jours apres le tremblement de terre et le Tsunami

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Shohoji Temple, kadonowaki area 3.

Photo: Michiko Kameda

After the evacuation of a 20 km radius zone around the Daiichi Nuclear plant, the towns, fields and road have been abandonned to nature. The entry was limited for a few hours at a time. Due to radiations, the zone has been left with little or no human activity. Despite police patrols, looting and burglaries have occured. Debris of the houses destroyed by the tsunami have piled up in front of this recently built house.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2012

40 jours apres le tremblement de terre et le Tsunami,

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Les troupeaux de vaches enfermees dans leurs minuscules enclos ont lentement agonise et les etables sont devenus des charniers de carcasses en putrefaction ou des escadrons de corbeaux festoient. Le drame s'est repete partout dans la prefecture de Fukushima. Avant la catastrophe, selon le ministere de l'agriculture, des forets et de la peche, il y avait environ 3400 vaches, 31500 cochons et 630000 poules. Aujourd'hui plus de deux mois apres, il reste moins de deux cents cochons et mille vaches en vie.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Avec la garantie donnee par Tepco, la compagnie d'electricite qui possedent les centrales nucleaires, de dedommager les pertes agricoles, certains eleveurs, ils ne sont pas la majorite, ont libere leurs betes et vides les etables. A present, elles paissent dans les rizieres et s'effarouchent a la vue d'un etre humain. Les autres ont laisse leurs etables devenirs des mouroirs.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

0, 51 microsievert a l'heure a distance de plusieurs metres.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

le dernier habitant de Tomioka: Il s'appelle Naoto Matsumura.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Since the evacuation order, the vegetation is growing wild. A stairways in Tomioka city is invaded by yellow flowers.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

La mesure de la radioactivite effectuee le 13 juin donnait 0,10 microsievert. Aujourd'hui, huit jours apres, la mesure a presque double : 0, 19 microsievert.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Radioactivite a Tokyo. Photo prise devant le magasin 3T, triple opt. Une boutique de lunettes situee avenue Sotobori a Ginza 6, 4-5 Cette boutique est situee sur la meme avenue que le building Sony. Devant le magasin, une bouche d'egout presente une radioactivite de 0,40 micro sievert jusque 0,92 micro sieverts.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

After the evacuation of a 20 km radius zone around the Daiichi Nuclear plant, the towns, fields and road have been abandonned to nature. The entry was limited for a few hours at a time. Due to radiations, the zone has been left with little or no human activity. Despite police patrols, looting and burglaries have occured.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2012

40 jours apres le tremblement de terre et le Tsunami. madame Yoko Ogino 75 ans, accompagne son fils sur l'emplacement de leur maison. "D'abord le tremblement de terre, ensuite le tsunami et maintenant la radioactivite. J'ai des problemes de coeur, de l'arthrite la vie est devenue intolerable."

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Par gros temps, les ouvriers assemblent un pylone pour le transport de l'electricite a haute-tension. Il y a un an, le tsunami detruisait les habitations et les rizieres a cet endroit et applatissait le paysage.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2012

Tunami debris near Ishinomaki port

Photo: Michiko Kameda

le dernier habitant de Tomioka: Il s'appelle Naoto Matsumura.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

At the train station of Tomioka city, the ruins of the earthquake remained untouched. The vegetation has been growng freely almost covering the car wrecks.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

In Tomioka city, the ruins of the earthquake remained untouched since 7 months. this the ruins of a ryokan on the seaside.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

House in front of Kadonowaki Elementary School, Kadonowaki area ?.

Photo: Michiko Kameda

le dernier habitant de Tomioka: Il s'appelle Naoto Matsumura. ici devant le mur d'enceinte de la centrale nucleaire de Dainichi.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

In the country side of Tomioka city, the ruins of the earthquake remained untouched. The vegetation has been growng freely covering the rice fields.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

40 jours apres le tremblement de terre et le Tsunami

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

In the No Go Zone around the Stricken Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, the burglaries have occured in convenient stores and private homes. In Tomioka, the supermarket Tom Tom has been looted for the cash leftover in the cash registers at the moment of the evacuation the 15 march 2011. The perishable foods like vegetables, meats and fish have rotten or dried. The many aftershocks have triggered a chaos rarely seen in a supermarket. These pictures are almost modern archeology oof what happens when a supermarket is abandonned in matter of minutes. The roof has fallen due to the aftershocks.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2012

Fallen giant seafood can near Ishinomaki port

Photo: Michiko Kameda

House in front of Kadonowaki Elementary School, Kadonowaki area 4.

Photo: Michiko Kameda

un incendie a sevi apres le tremblement de terre et le tsunami a Hisanohama

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Sur le littoral de Natori, il n'y a plus rien. Le tsunami du 11 mars a tout balaye. Aujourd'hui la ville doit affronter le replantage des pins noirs sur le littoral. Une digue provisoire a ete construite. Au fond, un avion se prepare a atterrire sur l'aeroprt voisin de Sendai.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

After the evacuation of a 20 km radius zone around the Daiichi Nuclear plant, the towns, fields and road have been abandonned to nature. The entry was limited for a few hours at a time. Due to radiations, the zone has been left with little or no human activity. Despite police patrols, looting and burglaries have occured.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2012

40 jours apres le tremblement de terre et le Tsunami

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

House near Ishinomaki port

Photo: Michiko Kameda

40 jours apres le tremblement de terre et le Tsunami

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

This table has been left untouched since 7 months. It shows the hurry of the habitants to evacuate the city of Tomioka. On the table, there are Shoyu sauce, fruits juice tea pot and a candle. After the earth quake, the power was cut off and people had to use candles for lighting.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Jonanjima SeasidePark, Ota. Des ecoliers viennent se promener sur le jardin creer le long de la rive. La radioactivite de l'air est 0, 16 microsievert par heure.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Sur le littoral de Natori, il n'y a plus rien. Le tsunami du 11 mars a tout balaye. Aujourd'hui la ville doit affronter le replantage des pins noirs sur le littoral et le recyclage des debris. Ici des immenses amas ferrailles attendent d'etre expedies dans une usine metallurgique pour etre fondu.A gauche des grands sacs de debris en vrac attendent d'etre tries.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

After the evacuation of a 20 km radius zone around the Daiichi Nuclear plant, the towns, fields and road have been abandonned to nature. The entry was limited for a few hours at a time. Due to radiations, the zone has been left with little or no human activity. Despite police patrols, looting and burglaries have occured. here in the junior high school of Tomioka, an abandonned bicycle lies down in the parking lot.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2012

40 jours apres le tremblement de terre et le Tsunami

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Les troupeaux de vaches enfermees dans leurs minuscules enclos ont lentement agonise et les etables sont devenus des charniers de carcasses en putrefaction ou des escadrons de corbeaux festoient. Le drame s'est repete partout dans la prefecture de Fukushima. Avant la catastrophe, selon le ministere de l'agriculture, des forets et de la peche, il y avait environ 3400 vaches, 31500 cochons et 630000 poules. Aujourd'hui plus de deux mois apres, il reste moins de deux cents cochons et mille vaches en vie.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

Un batiment a subi un incendie apres le tremblement de terre et le tsunami a Hisanohama

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2011

After the evacuation of a 20 km radius zone around the Daiichi Nuclear plant, the towns, fields and road have been abandonned to nature. The entry was limited for a few hours at a time. Due to radiations, the zone has been left with little or no human activity. Despite police patrols, looting and burglaries have occured. here in the elementary school of Tomioka, weeds have been growing in the yard during spring and turned dry in winter.

Photo: Antonio Pagnotta / Agence Cosmos Photos 2012

Executive Summary

On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the Pacific coast of Tohoku region, in north-eastern Honshu, the main island of Japan. The tremor triggered a tsunami that measured more than 40 meters in height in places. More than 15,000 people have been confirmed dead, with another 3,000 people missing (feared dead) and 6,000 people injured. On the same day, the installation of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, situated 230km north of Tokyo, was severely damaged by the earthquake and the following tsunami, losing the power supply and subsequently the control of the cooling systems. As a consequence, nuclear meltdown occurred in three of the reactors. Tens of thousands had to flee their homes as radiation leaked into the atmosphere, sea and food chains. One year on from the disaster, more than 330,000 people are still displaced from home after having lost their houses by the earthquake and tsunami, and as radiation fears increase from the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant.

The Disaster EVAcuation and RiSk PercepTion in Democracies (DEVAST) project was designed to analyse the chain of impacts, from the immediate response to the long-lasting impacts induced by the above Great East Japan Earthquake and the following Fukushima nuclear accident, focusing particularly on the displacement of population.

Following an analysis of the disaster response, the project looks closely at the evolution of the perception of risks in the Japanese society as a whole, and ultimately on other liberal democracies such as France. A comparative analysis with France on the issue of disaster management and perception of risks will be conducted in order to understand how democracies deal disasters.

The project is one of the few looking at the social impacts of the disaster: it brings together Japanese and French researchers from the Tokyo Institute of Technology (TITech), Waseda University and IDDRI – Sciences Po. It is jointly funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) through its International Collaborative Research/Survey Programme (J-RAPID) and the French National Research Agency (ANR) through its ‘Flash-Japon’ (ANR-11-JAPN-007) programme.

The project is designed around the following three themes:

      Disaster Evacuation and its Chain of Impacts

The project first analyses disaster responses in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami, and the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, focusing on the process of evacuation. DEVAST will seek to understand how the evacuation was organised, when and which information was disseminated among the population, what affected the decisions of evacuees to accept such displacements, examine the current situation of evacuees and assess the likelihood of their return, hence measuring the impact of such massive displacement in terms of social construction. Then it explores to identify the chain of impacts induced by these events through a domino effect that comprises of medium to long-term social, economic and political impacts on the Japanese society. A special attention will be paid to the social and cultural context of the Japanese society and how that has affected the chain of impacts.

      Perception of Risks

The disaster has ramifications well beyond Tohoku region: indeed, it not only set off a crisis in Japanese society at large but also incited a heated debate on the issues such as disaster preparedness, energy strategy and nuclear safety beyond its borders. Despite Japan’s extensive experience in dealing with earthquakes and tsunamis, the disaster raised serious questions about the government’s preparations for and handling of the disaster. The project thus examines the shift in the perception of risks in the Japanese society and its implications in other democracies, especially France.

How Democracies Deal with Disasters

Thirdly, the project brings together the above two themes in a comparative perspective with France, seeking to understand how democracies deal with disasters and to draw lessons. Though developed countries are often supposed to have good capacities to cope with disasters, these recent examples show that they are actually often ill-equipped to do so. Without pointing fingers, the project will seek to draw lessons from the Tohoku Earthquake for the management of extreme natural disasters worldwide, with a special focus in France.

The project is implemented mainly by the collection of primary data through an extensive field research and the analysis of secondary data such as media reports, government documents, opinion surveys, and related articles. The field research will be the key component of the project, and will collect empirical evidence through interviews with the displaced population, local authorities, emergency workers and the government officials in concern. The data collected from the fieldwork will be made available to the public and the academic community through this website. The analysis of secondary data will be conducted throughout the project implementation to complement this process. It includes the analysis of evacuation plans, opinion polls, media coverage, and related scientific articles.

 

This website is an essential part of our dissemination effort to communicate the project results and progress to a larger audience and make the primary data widely available for the research community.

 

Download the Japanese Presentation